Arrest is the act of taking a person into legal custody or control, usually because the person is suspected of or observed to have engaged in an act that breaks a law.
Jails are city- or county-run facilities where people await conviction or sentencing, and some people are serving relatively short sentences (usually for misdemeanors). It is also where people go for brief periods of detainment after arrest.
Prisons are facilities under state or federal control where people who have been convicted (usually of felonies) serve their sentences. Typically sentences to prison are for a year or more.
Probation is when a person is under correctional supervision in the community. They are convicted but the jail or prison sentence is suspended, so they do not serve time in jail or prison. They can go to jail or prison for violating any conditions of probation.
Parole is when a person is under correctional supervision in the community after having served time in prison. They are released prior to the court-imposed expiration date and can be returned to prison for violating any of the conditions of parole. This is also referred to as “extended supervision”.
Recidivism is when a person breaks the law again after being released from correctional supervision. It can be measured in different ways, such as self-report of behavior or examining records so determine if they have been arrested, convicted, or incarcerated again.